for violin, viola, cello, di/xiao, guzheng, & percussion conducted by Yu-An Chang 張宇安
The inspiration and elements of Sprawling Like Vines are derived from “Farewell Song” in the album of “SaySiyat of Wufeng Township,” which is included in Ostasien Institut e.V. Bonn Collection of Taiwan Music. Listening to the recording of “Farewell Song,” I perceived the subtle microtonal variations in the voices, and was fascinated with the parallel singing commonly appearing in traditional SaySiyat songs. In this piece, I attempt to combine the features of microtone and parallel singing with micropolyphony and heterophony, making the distorted fragments of “Farewell Song” entangled and spreading like vines, just as, with the passage of time, the accumulated sentiments after parting ceaselessly grow and sprawl like vines.
This piece is commissioned by Ostasien-Institut e.V. Bonn in memory of Alois Osterwalder.
＊binaural version optimized for headphones / 雙耳聲道版本，建議使用耳機聆聽 commissioned by Taiwan Sound Lab (C-LAB 臺灣聲響實驗室)
Illness² is inspired by “hypochondriasis” and “excessive dreaming,” two syndromes caused by overperception due to neurological disorder. Through distorted electronics and the ambisonic system, this piece builds up the scenarios of “hypochondria” and “dreaminess,” hoping to offer the audience a more direct and intense listening experience in the immersive space and to lead them into the inner world of the sufferers by associating their own feelings with the music.
Illness² is specifically composed and designed for the 49.4-channel immersive stereo space at C-LAB Taiwan Sound Lab.
performed by TNUA Orchestra 北藝大管絃樂團 (Shao-Chia Lü 呂紹嘉, cond.)
“Fiat Lux” is Latin for “Let there be light,” a quote from the book of Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. My alma mater, University of California, takes “Fiat Lux” as its school motto, implying its duty of bringing new knowledge to light and illuminating solutions for bettering the human condition. Either on the concrete or on the symbolic level, light is an indispensable existence in our daily life.
In this piece, I manipulate various instrumental sounds, especially the harmonics of string instruments and the resonances of metal percussion instruments, attempting to represent the static light and the dynamic light which have diverse hues and gestures: momentary flashes of the sunrise twilight, obscure glimmer emerging in darkness, fluorescent glowing of fireflies in the summer night’s valley, illusive starlight twinkling in the sky, bright neon lights in the sleepless city, brilliant flames of the countdown fireworks show.
In 2019, I returned from the U.S. to Taiwan and luckily enough became a faculty member of another alma mater, National Taipei University of the Arts. I can still recall my professor of Western music history told us how Beethoven “went through darkness and moved forward to the light” in his Symphony No. 5. I would like to dedicate this work to these two alma maters of mine, expecting myself to serve as a medium to transmit conscientiously the light of knowledge and music.
「Fiat Lux」是拉丁文，英譯為「Let There Be Light」（意為「要有光」）。這句話出自《創世紀》，也是我的母校美國加州大學（University of California）的校訓，隱含著大學傳播知識之光的使命。無論就具體或象徵的意涵而言，「光」在我們的日常生活中都是不可或缺的存在。
Shimmering in the Air is written for haegeum player Soo Yeon Lyuh and violist Ellen Ruth Rose. As the title indicates, this piece, by using plenty of air noise and harmonics from the instruments as well as the resonator and amplification from the electronics, aims at shaping a kind of atmosphere filled with light but bright timbres, metaphors of sparkling, shimmering fragments of lights scattering in the air, just like some fragments of memories flashing upon us yet quickly fading out and eventually forgotten in our life.
〈氤氳微光〉一曲是為奚琴演奏家 Soo Yeon Lyuh 與中提琴演奏家 violist Ellen Ruth Rose 所作（奚琴是韓國傳統二弦樂器， 演奏方式與中國二胡類似，但音色更加低沉粗獷）。 在此曲中，我大量使用器樂的氣聲與泛音，並加上共鳴共振器 (resonator)與擴音(amplification)的即時電聲效果，隱喻如碎片般散落在空氣中的微光，試圖塑造如曲名般、在朦朧中 透出輕微閃光的氛圍，同時也紀念許多生命中一閃而逝的時光片段。對我而言，這些微光彷彿一些散落在生命中的記憶碎片 ，突然閃現，卻又倏忽即逝，最終被我們所遺忘。
performed by Keyed Kontraptions (Meerenai Shim & Kris King), San Francisco, CA, USA, Apr. 2018
Sundowning is a neurological phenomenon most commonly seen in sufferers of Alzheimer’s disease. Patients with sundowning usually begin to show behavioral problems after the sun sets. Sometimes they get agitated, restless, or even aggressive; sometimes they suffer from auditory hallucination, illusion, or even delusional disorder. Such syndrome visited my aged grandmother, which put her in a state of mood swings, mental confusion, and cognitive disorder. I found her physical functions obviously degenerating; she even lost her sense of hearing the week before her death.
This piece is divided into two uninterrupted sections: Agitation and Hallucination. I attempt to record the decaying and dreary living gestures of an aged person at the last stage of her life. Sundowning II is commissioned by Guerrilla Composers Guild and written for Meerenai Shim & Kris King of Keyed Kontraptions.
commissioned by Taiwan Philharmonic, National Symphony Orchestra | NSO 國家交響樂團委託創作
Glittering Across the Ocean compiles my impressions and imaginations about the ocean as well as conveys the nostalgia and concern I feel for Taiwan while living across the Pacific in West Coast of the United States. To me, the ocean is one of the most intimate Taiwanese images. Born and bred in Hualien, and studying in the Bay Area in recent years, I have long lived in coastal cities and closely perceived many features of the ocean. In the poem “Manuscript in the Bottle,” Yang Mu compares his homesickness to surging waves: “when I set my foot in the ocean…/ will Hualien, oh Hualien in June / start a rumor of a tsunami?” Like the poet, I grew up in Hualien and studied in Berkeley; this poem deeply touches me.
This piece starts with diverse images of the ocean, its starlit splendor, its billowing tides, its shimmering waves on the ocean surface. In a different perspective, if I watch my distant hometown from the Bay Area, the tiny motions of waves on this shore might possibly cause a great tsunami or earthquake on the other shore. Through a shifting of perspectives from one shore to the other, I employ harmonics, trills, vibrations, resonances, subtle but complex textural and timbral changes, not only to represent shimmering waves and surging tsunamis, but also to shape dramatic fluctuations and transitions between the two scenarios.
In the process of composing this piece, a violent earthquake severely hit Hualien on 6 February 2018. I’d like to dedicate this piece to the ocean and the people in my hometown in token of my blessing for them, whether I am on this shore or on the other shore of the Pacific.
performed by NTSO 國立台灣交響樂團 (范楷西, cond.), Taichung, Taiwan, Aug. 2017.
performed by UC Berkeley Symphony Orchestra (David Milnes, cond.), Berkeley, USA, Feb. 2018.
A Leaf Falls After is inspired by my recent memories of living in Europe. In the fall of 2015, I received the Ladd Prize funded by UC Berkeley and had the great opportunity to live in Paris for ten months. This was my first time in Paris as well as in Europe; I experienced intimate incidents of fragile beauty that touched me, but also shocking and terrifying ones during my residence there. I was impressed by the most clear and colorful fall I’d ever seen when autumn leaves fell to the ground, sizzling as if drizzling; I was terrified by the terrorist attack but also touched by the toughness of the Parisians that winter; on a visit to St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, I was fascinated to hear twelve bells constantly ringing, intertwining together as a huge chaotic but illusory whirl; I was stunned when visiting the installation ‘Fallen Leaves’ at the Jewish Museum in Berlin, watching thousands of open mouthed steel metal faces on the ground create, when walked on, harshly grating sounds like the victims’ screams.
Inspired by mixed emotions and diverse sounds, this piece traces the journey of a leaf: a solitary leaf falling with loneliness as described in an e. e. cumming’s poem; a light leaf falling with other leaves in autumn; a heavy metal leaf fallen on the ground. However, no matter what vibrations it has undergone during its falling and fallen time, the leaf will eventually be reincarnated into a rising butterfly, flapping its wings to cause a tornado in spring until the next falling comes. Based on such images, I create a constantly flowing process of different kinds of vibrations along with air sounds to represent falling leaves, fallen leaves, and flaps of rising butterflies’ wings. Besides this, metallic sounds/noises either with pure resonances or with intense pressure make up another important element, which is associated with my memories of the ringing bells and the metal “fallen leaves.”
performed by David Wegehaupt and Jeff Anderle, Jun. 2015, Splinter Reeds Concert (Berkeley, CA, USA)
The title “till we’re all in a whirl hitting the ground” comes from the lyrics “let’s cross over and over till we’re all in a whirl hitting the ground” of the song “Shall We Dance,” written by a Taiwanese indie-rock band Tizzy Bac. The story of the song is about lovers struggling to move on in spite of so many barriers and difficulties in between.
In this piece, I create a continuously decaying and receding form moving gradually from the loud chaotic “climax” to the silent fusion, in order to interpret the changing process of a relationship between two persons originally belonging to two different worlds but eventually getting closer to each other after a series of conflicts, struggles, dialogues, and compromises.
Orchestra Prize for 40th Anniversary Celebration (Taipei Symphony Orchestra), 2009 ─ performed by Taipei Symphony Orchestra, June 2009, 40th Anniversary Concert (Taipei, Taiwan)
This musical piece is entitled “Hui-Lan.” Literally, the Chinese character「洄」( pronounced as Hui) means the circling and swirling of waters;「瀾」(pronounced as Lan) means great waves. “Hui-Lan” was the ancient name of Hualien, a county located in the eastern part of Taiwan. The origin of its name was recorded in The History of Hualien County, “East of the Hualien Stream, where the waters flew into the ocean, great waves dashed against one another, forming whirls and surges. So, according to the natural phenomenon, they named the place Hui-Lan.” Later its assonance “Hualien” was used and has continued to be used till today.
Hualien-born and Hualien-bred, the composer chooses “Hui-Lan” (the ancient name of Hualien) to be the title and finds inspiration in it. She attempts to depict, through music, the scene of whirling waves produced when ocean waves and stream waters dash against each other. She extends the meaning of “Hui-Lan” and makes it identical with Hualien by transforming into music many natural elements of Hualien, such as wind blowing, birds chirping, rain dropping, clouds floating, mountain creeks flowing in the gorge, stones and rocks falling, and the Pacific surging. Furthermore, she borrows some melodic fragments (as indicated below) from “You Came,” a famous song composed by Mr. Guo Tze-jiu and familiar to people in Hualien. However, she makes them implicit and obscure through transformation. Applying part of the melody, the composer doesn’t mean to lay stress on the song, but hopes to add to this musical piece some symbolic meaning of humanistic spirit, which can be seen as a tribute to her hometown and to the composers of the preceding generation.此曲曲名「洄瀾」，從字面上解釋，「洄」意為水流盤旋迴轉，「瀾」即為大波浪之意。「洄瀾」一詞是花蓮的古地名，花蓮縣志云：花蓮溪東，注其水與海濤激盪，迂迴澎湃，狀之以其容，故曰洄瀾。後之人諧為花蓮，至今沿襲之。
Performed by TNUA ensemble (Fl. 黃靖婷，Vc. 羅翡翠，Pn. 黃子臻), Jun. 2009, Taipei, Taiwan
The composer chooses “Four Moods” as the title of this work for two reasons: not only to depict four “sentiments or states of mind”, but also to create four kinds of musical “atmospheres” which are co-relative, though of different shades.
This work consists of four sections, whose subtitles are “solitude,” “waiting,” “illusion,” and “obsession.” These four mental conditions occur in sequence and in a cause-and-effect relationship. Solitude leads to anticipation; the futile process of restless waiting leads to illusion; the disillusionment of yearning and fantasy leads to obsession caused by a mixture of jealousy and resentment. Overwhelmed with such emotions, one falls into a state of collapse and then again feels solitude, which exists all the time. In this way, the four moods form a vicious circle.
By means of obscure musical expressions and the manipulation of timbres, the composer intends to transform these moods into music and create emotional atmospheres. The purpose for adding the subtitles to the four sections is to provide some associable and perceivable direction for the performers and the listeners, in the hope that the original thoughts of the composer can be extended infinitely through the interpretation of the performers as well as the re-interpretation of the listeners.